Action Selection for Transparent Planning


We introduce a novel framework to formalize and solve transparent planning tasks by executing actions selected in a suitable and timely fashion. A transparent planning task is defined as a task where the objective of the agent is to communicate its true goal to observers, thereby making its intentions and its action selection transparent. We formally define and model these tasks as Goal POMDPs where the state space is the Cartesian product of the states of the world and a given set of hypothetical goals. Action effects are deterministic in the world states of the problem but probabilistic in the observer’s beliefs. Transition probabilities are obtained from making a call to a model–based plan recognition algorithm, which we refer to as an observer stereotype. We propose an action selection strategy via on–line planning that seeks actions to quickly convey the goal being pursued to an observer assumed to fit a given stereotype. In order to keep run–times feasible, we propose a novel model–based plan recognition algorithm that approximates well–known probabilistic plan recognition methods. The resulting on–line planner, after being evaluated over a diverse set of domains and three different observer stereotypes, is found to convey goal information faster than purely goal–directed planners.

International Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems (AAMAS)